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Self-pollination of the flower is impossible due to the seperation of the stamen from the stigma by the rostellum. However, in the native region where vanilla grows mainly in Mexico, pollination is done by Melipona bees. Elsewhere, manual pollination is carried out. However, Vanilla planifolia flowers only once a year during a short period of two months and in the region of the Indian Ocean mainly in Madagascar, Reunion and Comores Islands , it flowers from November to January. The flowers open early in the morning for six to eight hours and wither the day after. Successful pollination is carried out early morning. If unsuccessful, the flowers drop off in two or three days. Hand-pollination is done with a sharp splinter thorn with the flower held in one hand and the labellum is pushed down with the thumb releasing the column. The stamen cap is therefore removed by the thorn which exposes the pollinia, where the flap rostellum is pushed up under the stamen with the thorn by pressing with the thumb for one minute. Thus the pollinia are brought into contact with the sticky stigma.

The greatest threat and causes of fluctuation and weakening production at its peak is that Madagascar is situated in a cyclonic region normally in the month of December to April.